Lipolyze is a non-stimulant fat-burner by Species Nutrition which contains some well-established weight-loss ingredients as well as some that are questinoable…[Skip to the Bottom Line]
Green Tea Extract (EGCG):
Green Tea Extract is generally standardized for the compound, EGCG, which has been studied fairly extensively with regards to weight-loss.
A 2009 study, published in “The Journal of Nutrition”, found that subjects consuming 625mg Green Tea Catechins (EGCG) alongside 40mg Caffeine paired with exercise lost an average of 2.2kg (4.8lbs) compared to the subjects in the control group (consuming just Caffeine), who lost an average of 1kg (2.2lbs).
These findings were corroborated by a 2009 meta-analysis, published in the “International Journal of Obesity”, which concluded that Green Tea extract tended to cause about 1.2kg (2.6lbs) reduction in bodyweight, and that effects could be amplified with Caffeine in non-caffeine tolerant individuals.
Further research has revealed that EGCG can effectively block Catechol-o-Methyl Transferase (COMT), the enzyme responsible for the degradation of Catcholamines such as Noradrenaline. The result is an indirect increase in Noradrenaline which induces lipolysis. So, while EGCG is not likely to induce noticeable weight-loss alone, when combined with Caffeine or other Noradrenaline-releasing stimulants, it can be quite synergistic. Most of the efficacy has been demonstrated using doses of 400-500mg EGCG daily and the less caffeine-tolerant the individual, the better.
Lipolyze contains 250mg of Green Tea Extracts yielding just over 112mg of EGCG per serving. At thise dose, multiple servings may be needed to achieve results in-line with the above-mentioned studies.
Carnitine is an amino acid that is heavily involved with the metabolism of fat for energy. It is required for the proper transport of fatty acids in the mitochondria, where they are oxidized (burned) for energy through the process known as “beta-oxidation”.
Carnitine deficiency has been shown to hinder fat-burning capacity. Because of this integral role in the fat-burning process, Carnitine supplementation is alleged to burn-fat, and while it may certainly help normalize fat-burning capacity, human studies regarding weight loss are mixed.
A 2002 study, published in “Metabolism”, found that Carnitine supplementation (1g/day) increased fatty acid oxidation rates in humans without Carnitine deficiency.
A 2004 study from the same journal found that L-Carnitine supplementation (3g/day) increased fatty acid oxidation in overweight subjects while having no effect on protein synthesis or breakdown.
However, a 2005 study, published in the “International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research”, found that Carnitine supplementation failed to influence weight-loss in rats. The results of this study were in-line with an earlier (2002) study in which L-Carnitine supplementation (4g/day) failed to influence fat mass, body mass, or resting lipid utilization in moderately obese women.
A more recent (2010) study found that Carnitine supplementation did favorably influence fatty acid utilization in rats, though this study did not measure fat mass post-supplementation.
Ultimately, Carnitine does possess the mechanisms by which it “should” burn fat (via increased utilization of fatty acids), but human studies are not particularly encouraging so far. Lipolyze contains 250mg of Acetyl-L-Carnitine which is on the low side as far as the studies (and competing products) are concerned.
A 2009 study, funded by Gateway Health Alliances (a manufacturer of African Mango supplements), found that 150mg taken prior to meals for 10 weeks was able to reduce food intake (suppress appetite) in human subjects.
Unfortunately, this was the only seemingly well-constructed human study, and the conflict of interest naturally makes us skeptical of the results.
A 2013 systematic review, published in the “Journal of Dietary Supplements”, concluded that there is currently insufficient evidence for African Mango as an effective weight-loss supplement. This doesn’t mean it doesn’t work, just that the current research is tenuous at best.
Lipolyze contains 100mg of African Mango, about 33% less than what was used in the study mentioned above.
ALPHA LIPOIC ACID:
Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA) is a potent anti-oxidant with wide variety of health implications, but for the purpose of this review we will focus on its potential for weight loss.
A 2009 study from the “Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry” found that ALA supplementation significantly decreased appetite in rats fed a high-fat diet, resulting in less weight gain than rats fed the same diet without ALA. These results indicate that ALA may be able to influence weight-loss beyond appetite suppression.
However, another 2009 study (using similar methods as the first one) noted that the weight-loss in the ALA group was not significantly different than the group who consumed the same diet without ALA, indicating that reduced appetite was the predominant reason for weight loss. Furthermore, a 2011 study, published in the “American Journal of Medicine” found that obese individuals who consumed 1800mg of ALA daily for 20 weeks experienced moderate weight loss compared to the control group.
Lipolyze contains 100mg of ALA, far below what has been shown to reduce bodyweight in a clinical setting.
Oleoylethanolamide is a naturally occurring compound in the human body which is responsible for satiety (feeling of fullness) following a meal. Because of this role, it is alleged to function as an appetite suppressant.
A 2009 study, published in the “British Journal of Nutrition”, found that a combination of NOPE (precursor to Oleoylethanolamide) and EGCG was able to reduce binge eating and subsequent depressive symptoms in overweight human subjects compared to placebo group, but bodyweight did not differ substantially between groups by the end of the (8 week) study.
Similar findings were obtained in a later (2012) study from “Lipids in Health and Disease”, though the appetite-suppression/mood effects were no longer apparent after 8 weeks.
A 2014 study, published in “Disease Models & Mechanisms” found that Oleoylethanolamide was able to enhance the thermogenic response to beta(3)-aderenergic receptor activation in mice. This is because Oleoylethanolamide targets PPARa, the effects of which are enhanced when beta(3)-adrenergic receptors are activated.
As discussed in this article on Conjugated Linoleic Acid, however, PPAR expression tends to vary widely between rodents and humans. At this time, the true weight-loss implications of Oleoylethanolamide for humans are not well-understood.
Lipolyze contains 45mg of Oleoylethanolamide per serving, about half of what could be technically considered a “clinical dose”.
Guggulsterone has been investigated primarily in regards to thyroid function and weight loss. In rats, supplementation at about 10mg/kg has been shown to increase iodine uptake and thyroid function. However, no human studies have confirmed these effects. Furthermore, the dose used in these studies is much higher than what is commonly ingested in the form of dietary supplements.
Lipolyze contains 9.5mg of Guggulsterone Z &E.
THE BOTTOM LINE:
Lipolyze contains some effective ingredients as well as some that are pretty questionable. The main issue we see is one involving dosing. Users will need multiple servings to get into the effective range for certain ingredients, but at that point cost becomes an issue. Ultimately, we feel there are better options within the same price range.
[expand title=”REFERENCES” tag=”h5″]
- Lu, Hong, Xiaofeng Meng, and Chung S. Yang. “Enzymology of methylation of tea catechins and inhibition of catechol-O-methyltransferase by (−)-epigallocatechin gallate.” Drug metabolism and disposition 31.5 (2003): 572-579.
- Maki, Kevin C., et al. “Green tea catechin consumption enhances exercise-induced abdominal fat loss in overweight and obese adults.” The Journal of nutrition 139.2 (2009): 264-270.
- Thielecke, Frank, et al. “Epigallocatechin-3-gallate and postprandial fat oxidation in overweight/obese male volunteers: a pilot study.” European journal of clinical nutrition 64.7 (2010): 704-713.
- Keränen, Tapani, et al. “Inhibition of soluble catechol-O-methyltransferase and single-dose pharmacokinetics after oral and intravenous administration of entacapone.” European journal of clinical pharmacology 46.2 (1994): 151-157.
- Brown, A. L., et al. “Health effects of green tea catechins in overweight and obese men: a randomised controlled cross-over trial.” British Journal of Nutrition106.12 (2011): 1880-1889.
- Hursel, R., W. Viechtbauer, and M. S. Westerterp-Plantenga. “The effects of green tea on weight loss and weight maintenance: a meta-analysis.”International journal of obesity 33.9 (2009): 956-961.
- Wutzke, Klaus D., and Henrik Lorenz. “The effect of l-carnitine on fat oxidation, protein turnover, and body composition in slightly overweight subjects.”Metabolism 53.8 (2004): 1002-1006
- Seim, H., W. Kiess, and T. Richter. “Effects of oral L-carnitine supplementation on in vivo long-chain fatty acid oxidation in healthy adults.” Metabolism 51.11 (2002): 1389-1391
- Melton, S. A., et al. “L-carnitine supplementation does not promote weight loss in ovariectomized rats despite endurance exercise.” International journal for vitamin and nutrition research 75.2 (2005): 156-160.
- Villani, Rudolph G., et al. “L-Carnitine supplementation combined with aerobic training does not promote weight loss in moderately obese women.”International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism 10.2 (2000): 199-207.
- Karanth, Jyothsna, and K. Jeevaratnam. “Effect of carnitine supplementation on mitochondrial enzymes in liver and skeletal muscle of rat after dietary lipid manipulation and physical activity.” (2010).
- Ngondi, Judith L., et al. “IGOB131, a novel seed extract of the West African plant Irvingia gabonensis, significantly reduces body weight and improves metabolic parameters in overweight humans in a randomized double-blind placebo controlled investigation.” Lipids in Health and Disease 8.7 (2009).
- Onakpoya, Igho, et al. “The efficacy of irvingia gabonensis supplementation in the management of overweight and obesity: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.” Journal of dietary supplements 10.1 (2013): 29-38.
- Fernández-Galilea, Marta, et al. “Effects of lipoic acid on apelin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and in high-fat fed rats.” Journal of physiology and biochemistry 67.3 (2011): 479-486.
- Prieto-Hontoria, P. L., et al. “Lipoic acid prevents body weight gain induced by a high fat diet in rats: effects on intestinal sugar transport.” Journal of physiology and biochemistry 65.1 (2009): 43-50.
- Butler, Judy A., Tory M. Hagen, and Régis Moreau. “Lipoic acid improves hypertriglyceridemia by stimulating triacylglycerol clearance and downregulating liver triacylglycerol secretion.” Archives of biochemistry and biophysics 485.1 (2009): 63-71.
- Koh, Eun Hee, et al. “Effects of alpha-lipoic acid on body weight in obese subjects.” The American journal of medicine 124.1 (2011): 85-e1.
- Tripathi, Yamini B., O. P. Malhotra, and S. N. Tripathi. “Thyroid stimulating action of Z-guggulsterone obtained from Commiphora mukul.” Planta medica50.01 (1984): 78-80.
- Tripathi, Y. B., et al. “Thyroid Stimulatory Action of (< EM EMTYPE=.” Planta medica 54.04 (1988): 271-277.
- Li, Pipeng, et al. “Metabolic and cellular plasticity in white adipose tissue II: role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α.” American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism 289.4 (2005): E617-E626.
- Suárez, Juan, et al. “Oleoylethanolamide enhances β-adrenergic-mediated thermogenesis and white-to-brown adipocyte phenotype in epididymal white adipose tissue in rat.” Disease models & mechanisms 7.1 (2014): 129-141.
- Rondanelli, Mariangela, et al. “Administration of a dietary supplement (N-oleyl-phosphatidylethanolamine and epigallocatechin-3-gallate formula) enhances compliance with diet in healthy overweight subjects: a randomized controlled trial.” British journal of nutrition 101.03 (2009): 457-464.
- Mangine, Gerald T., et al. “The effect of a dietary supplement (N-oleyl-phosphatidyl-ethanolamine and epigallocatechin gallate) on dietary compliance and body fat loss in adults who are overweight: A double-blind, randomized control trial.” Lipids in health and disease 11.1 (2012): 127.