Dymetadrine Xtreme is a stimulant-based fat-burner by AST which may be moderately effective assuming the right dose is consumed.
Caffeine generally serves a key ingredient in stimulant-based fat-burners because of its ability to trigger the release of Noradrenaline, a neurotransmitter which directly stimulates lipolysis (fat breakdown). Although this mechanism can certainly burn fat in the short-term, prolonged Caffeine consumption (by itself) generally results in tolerance build-up so the effects become less potent over time. This was demonstrated in a 1992 study in which 24 weeks of Caffeine intake (200mg/day) failed to induce weight-loss in humans. So, for Caffeine to be an effective fat-burner, it generally must be combined with other stimulants or synergistic compounds such as EGCG (Green Tea Extract).
Lipocide contains 200mg of Caffeine, enough to kickstart the fat-burning process, and enhance the effects of the other stimulants (Synephrine, PEA, Yohimbine).
Carnitine is an amino acid that is heavily involved with the metabolism of fat for energy. It is required for the proper transport of fatty acids in the mitochondria, where they are oxidized (burned) for energy through the process known as “beta-oxidation”. Carnitine deficiency has been shown to hinder fat-burning capacity. Because of this integral role in the fat-burning process, Carnitine supplementation is alleged to burn-fat, and while it may certainly help normalize fat-burning capacity, human studies regarding weight loss are mixed.
A 2002 study, published in “Metabolism”, found that Carnitine supplementation (1g/day) increased fatty acid oxidation rates in humans without Carnitine deficiency.
A 2004 study from the same journal found that L-Carnitine supplementation (3g/day) increased fatty acid oxidation in overweight subjects while having no effect on protein synthesis or breakdown.
However, a 2005 study, published in the “International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research”, found that Carnitine supplementation failed to influence weight-loss in rats. The results of this study were in-line with an earlier (2002) study in which L-Carnitine supplementation (4g/day) failed to influence fat mass, body mass, or resting lipid utilization in moderately obese women.
A more recent (2010) study found that Carnitine supplementation did favorably influence fatty acid utilization in rats, though this study did not measure fat mass post-supplementation.
While Carnitine does have the mechanisms by which it “should” encourage weight-loss, the dose present in the Lipocide formula is far less than what could theoretically facilitate any excess fat-burning. So, while it doesn’t do much in the context of Lipocide, a little Carnitine can’t hurt either.
Tyrosine is a non-essential amino acid which acts as a precursor to Dopamine, and further downstream, Noradrenaline. Because of this relationship, Tyrosine is commonly alleged to increase levels of these neurotransmitters upon oral ingestion. However, research indicates that Tyrosine forms a pool which can be drawn from to produce more Dopamine and Noradrenaline when deficiency would otherwise occur (such as during extended exercise).
Tyrosine, while not directly influencing body-weight, may encourage adequate levels of Noradrenaline, which directly control lipolysis. The dose of N-Acetyl-L-Tyrosine found in Lipocide is likely no more than 100mg or so.
Evodiamine is a pungent plant extract which appears to mimic the thermogenic effects of Capsaicin in rats. However, no human studies have been published at this time testing the effects of the extract on humans. Due to this lack of research, it’s tough to gauge the exact efficacy of a given dose of Eviodiamine but, in the context of Phantom, it may verywell contribute to the thermogenic effects of Capsaicin and Ginger.
VELVET BEAN EXTRACT:
Velvet Bean is a member of the legume family which contains a significant amount of the compound L-Dopa. L-Dopa, being the intermediary between Tyrosine and Dopamine can actually increase Dopamine levels upon oral ingestion. Unfortunately, the impact of L-Dopa on bodyweight in humans has not been studied extensively. Theoretically, L-Dopa should encourage fat-burning by helping to maintain optimal Dopamine/Noradrenaline levels.
CITRUS AURANTIUM (ADVANTRA Z):
Advantra Z is a patented form of Bitter Orange Extract which has pretty clear implications for weight-loss in humans.
A 2011 study, published in the “International Journal of Medicinal Sciences”, found that supplementation of 50mg Syneprhine increased the metabolic rate in human subjects without affecting blood pressure or heart rate.
Similarly to Ephedrine, Synephrine is a beta-receptor agonist and an alpha-receptor antagonist, the net effect of which is an increase in lipolysis. While the amount of Synephrine in Lipocide is not disclosed, it generally doesn’t take much to trigger at least a slight increase in metabolic rate.
As far as Phenylethylamine’s direct effects on weight loss, studies are more or less non-existent. However, PEA triggers the release of Catecholamines (Noradrenaline, Adrenaline, etc.) the general physiological reaction of which is activation of the beta-adrenergic receptors which induce lipolysis. So the mechanism by which PEA may induce weight loss is theoretically sound, just not documented. Because the effects are generally short-lived, it is hardly a miracle weight-loss supplement on its own, but combined with compounds such as Hordenine (which blocks the rapid oxidation of PEA in the brain) the effects can be amplified and practically relevant. Lipocide contains an undisclosed amount of PEA, but combined with the other stimulants present in the formula, it may certainly contribute.
Capsimax is a brand name for capsicum extract, a group of plants that include the pepper family. Though commonly standardized for Capsaicin content, Capsicum also contains other compounds, collectively referred to as Capsaicinoids, which include Dihydrocapsaicin and Nordihydrocapsaicin.
A 2007 study noted an increase in fat oxidation (relative to placebo) during low intensity exercise in healthy adult males who consumed 150mg of capsaicin one hour before exercise.
A 2001 found subjects who consumed CH-19 Sweet (containing Capsinoids) had significantly higher core body temperatures and increased oxygen consumption (indicative of energy production) compared to the placebo group.
A later (2010) study, published in “The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition”, found that Dihydrocapsiate supplementation (3-9mg/day) caused a small but noticeable increase in the resting metabolic rate of healthy human subjects.
Unfortunately, it’s unclear whether Lipocide contains an effective dose of Capsimax. Given its position in the proprietary blend, it seems unlikely.
Piper nigrum, also known as Black Pepper, contains Piperine. Several studies have found that black pepper extract, when combined with other supplements, has increased the absorption of those supplements (as measured by plasma levels). Piperines ability to increase absorption of other compounds is due to the inhibition of certain enzymes as well as the slowing of intestinal transit, effectively increasing the amount of time these compounds are exposed to the possibility of uptake. So, while Black Pepper Extract has no direct effect on weight-loss it may certainly enhance the Lipocide formula by increasing the absorption of the other ingredients.
Yohimbine HCl is an alpha(2) receptor antagonist, meaning it inhibits the receptor responsible for blocking lipolysis (breakdown of fat). By blocking the action of this receptor Yohimbine allows for more lipolysis than would otherwise be possible from exercise.
A 2006 study, published in “Research in Sports Medicine”, found that Yohimbine supplementation (20mg/day) induced relatively significant fat loss in athletes (soccer players). These results conflicted somewhat with those of an earlier (1991) study from the “International Journal of Obesity” in which Obese men did not benefit from long-term Yohimbine supplementation. However, the obvious difference between these two studies was that in the failed study the subjects did not exercise.
As previously stated, Yohimbine directly acts on alpha-2 receptor so for it to be truly effective as a weight-loss agent, it must be combined with something that activates the fat-burning process in the first place (i.e. stimulants or exercise). We estimate that Lipocide contains no more than 1-3mg of Yohimbine, but even at low doses the fat-loss effects can be noticeable, when combined with other stimulants.
THE BOTTOM LINE:
Dymetadrine Xtreme can certainly be classified as a stimulant-based fat-burner, and based on the profile, it does have some fairly substantial fat-burning potential. Although the individual ingredient levels are not listed, given a proprietary blend of 1218mg, there is no reason to suspect less than optimal doses of key ingredients. For noticeable results, we’d recommend going with two servings daily, and at about 40 cents per serving, that is actually a viable option.
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