Vexxum is the most recent stimulant-based fat-burner released by Pro Supps. The formula is similar to Vanish, Pro Supps’ other fat-burner, but potentially more potent…FIND IT HERE
Caffeine certainly has pro-fat-loss mechanisms but the effects tend to fade with prolonged use, rendering caffeine ineffective as a long-term weight loss solution on its own. However, when paired with other fat-burning stimulants, Caffeine can kick-start the fat-burning process. So, in the context of Vexxum, Caffeine is definitely an effective/important ingredient.
Cocoabuterol is a combination of N-Coumaroyldopamine, N-Caffeoyldopamine, EGCG, and Theobromine, extracted from Theobromacacao L. Each
A 2005 study, published in “The FASEB Journal”, found that both N-Coumaroyldopamine and N-Caffeoyldopamine were able to increase cAMP via beta-adrenoceptor agonsim, in vitro. Although these findings should be viewed as strictly preliminary, they do suggest that these two compounds have the potential to be used as fat-burners in humans, sharing the same basic mechanism of action as many other stimulant fat-burners.
EGCG may further potentiate the fat-burning effects of the first two compounds found in Cocoabuterol because it functions as a Catechol-O-Methyl Transferase (COMT) inhibitor. COMT is one of the enzymes which degrades Catecholamine neurotransmitters, such as Nordrenaline, in the brain. Catecholamines tend to be lipolytic, especially Noradrenaline, and by inhibiting COMT, EGCG may extend the fat-burning effects.
Theobromine remains under-researched, especially with regards to fat-burning potential. Preliminary research indicates that Theobromine is a cardiac stimulant, but does not appear to have any potent psychoactive properties.
Pro Supps does not disclose the exact dose of Cocoabuterol in Vexxum, nor the exact amount of each ingredient in Cocoabuterol. It seems doubtful that there is enough EGCG in the formula to play a particularly significant role, N-Coumaroyldopamine and N-Caffeoyldopamine require pretty low doses to be effective, so Cocoabuterol as a whole may still be a useful fat-burning ingredient.
Dicaffeine Malate is simply a combination of Caffeine and Malic Acid. While Creative Compounds, the manufacturer of Infinergy, claims a variety of additional benefits over what can be achieved with regular caffeine, there are no scientific studies to support these claims at this time.
We’re not dismissing the claims that Infinergy is superior to Caffeine, but for now it’s safest to just consider it another form of Caffeine.
Nelumbo Nucifera (NN), sometimes referred to as Indian Lotus, is a flowering plant which has been shown to have anti-obesity effects in mice. The lipolytic effects of Nelumbo Nucifera are primarily attributed to the Higenamine, although there are other compounds which may potentiate these effects. Higenamine is a Beta(2) Adrenergic Agonist (same mechanism as Ephedra), meaning it stimulates the Beta(2) Adrenergic Receptors which initiate fat-burning.
Pro Supps does not disclose the exact dose of Lotus in Vexxum, nor the concentration of Higenamine present. That said, there is no “clinically effective” dose of Higenamine since human research is non-existent, so knowing the exact dose wouldn’t necessarily be helpful anway.
Theacrine is an alkaloid found almost exclusively in Camellia Assamica, also known as Kucha tea. In terms of its chemical structure, Theacrine (1,3,7,9-tetramethyluric acid) is very similar to Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine), so its physiological effects are alleged to be similar as well.
A 2012 study, published in “Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior”, found that injections of 24-48mg/kg of Theacrine increased locomotion in rats via the same signaling pathways as Caffeine. Perhaps the most interesting part of this particular study was the fact that chronic Theacrine administration did not result in any observable tolerance build-up, as is generally the case with Caffeine.
The only human study that exists, a 2014 pilot study published in “Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition“, found that Theacrine supplementation was able increase perceived energy levels in human subjects, though it’s potential as a fat-burner remains unexplored at this time.
Hordenine is included in many fat-burners because of its ability to amplify the effects of Caffeine. Preliminary studies indicate that its primary mechanism of action is via Momoamine Oxidase inhibition, with oral doses being shown to augment Noradrenaline-induced muscle contraction while not directly inducing contractions itself.
So, rather than acting as a stand-alone stimulant, Hordenine can amplify/extend the effects of other stimulants by blocking the reuptake of Noradrenaline (and other Monoamines).
Pro Supps does not disclose the exact dose of Hordenine in Vexxum, but it doesn’t take much (20-50mg) to noticeably enhance the effects of Caffeine.
Octopamine is a metabolite of Synephrine that is alleged to have similar fat-burner capabilities. In vitro, Octopamine has demonstrated a distinct affinity for beta-3 receptors, as opposed to the other two types.
Unfortunately, since beta-3 receptors mediate fat-loss in human white adipose tissue to a lesser degree than the other beta-receptors, Octopamine may be less potent than Synephrine in a practical setting.
That said, given that there are several other beta-adrenergic receptor agonists present in the Vexxum formula, the pressure isn’t on Octopamine so much. We’d consider it more of a bonus that might subtly enhance the efficacy of the formula.
Pausinystalia yohimbe is generally standardized for the alkaloid, Yohimbine HCl, which is an alpha(2) receptor antagonist, meaning it inhibits the receptor responsible for blocking lipolysis (breakdown of fat). By blocking the action of this receptor Yohimbine allows for more lipolysis than would otherwise be possible from exercise.
A 2006 study, published in “Research in Sports Medicine”, found that Yohimbine supplementation (20mg/day) induced relatively significant fat loss in athletes (soccer players), but had no influence on measures of exercise performance.
Pro Supps does not disclose the dose of Yohimbe, nor the amount of Yohimbine present, but we’d estimate no more than a few mg (which still may be moderately effective).
Citicoline is a highly bioavailable source of Choline (second only to Alpha GPC) which has been shown to raise Acetylcholine levels in living model.
Acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter commonly attributed with controlling the mind-muscle-connection, and although this may be somewhat of an over-simplification, increased levels of Acetylcholine generally lead to cognitive improvements.
In the context of Vexxum, Citicoline may provide some nootropic benefit, though based on its position in the proprietary blend, we question whether there is a particularly effective dose.
Sulbutiamine is an analogue (chemical relative) of Thiamine (Vitamin B1), the benefits of which pertain mostly to fatigue.
A 1999 study found that subjects suffering from chronic post-infectious fatigue who consumed 400 and 600mg of Sulbutiamine experienced significant reduction in over-all fatigue compared to the placebo group.
These findings were replicated in a 2003 study, published in “The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India”, in which subjects (again with infection-induced fatigue) who consumed 400mg reported significant reductions in fatigue as well.
Unfortunately, since both of these studies involved patients with some sort of medical ailment, it’s difficult to say how effective Sulbutiamine would be in healthy persons, and even more difficult to say how this anti-fatigue effect may translate to physical performance (if at all). There are absolutely no studies regarding the potential of Sulbutiamine for weight-loss nor is there any reason to suggest it would be beneficial in any way.
Vexxum clearly does not contain a “clinical” (400mg) dose of Sulbutiamine, so it’s clear how beneficial it really is in this particular instance.
Rauwolscine, also known as Alpha-yohimbine, is a close chemical relative of Yohimbine. In the context of Vexxum , its function is basically the same.
Like Yohimbine, Rauwolscine is an Alpha Receptor Antagonist, meaning it blocks the receptors responsible for blocking lipolysis. By blocking these receptors, Rauwolscine is able to potentiate the effects of other stimulant fat-burners and allow more fat-burning than would normally occur from exercise alone.
The Bottom Line
Vexxum derives all of its fat-burning potential from several stimulant compounds, some of which act directly on beta-adrenergic receptors to induce fat-loss. Although Pro Supps does not disclose the weight of each ingredient in the formula, most of the (stimulant) ingredients require only small doses to be effective, so there aren’t any obvious indications of under-dosing. Overall, Vexxum is actually a pretty effective fat-burner, although we would absolutely not recommend it to those who don’t get along with stimulants.
Still not sure which fat-burner is right for you? Take a look at our Top 10 Fat-Burners List!
- Park, Jae B. “N-coumaroyldopamine and N-caffeoyldopamine increase cAMP via beta 2-adrenoceptors in myelocytic U937 cells.” The FASEB journal 19.6 (2005): 497-502.
- Arciero, PAUL J., et al. “Effects of caffeine ingestion on NE kinetics, fat oxidation, and energy expenditure in younger and older men.” American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology And Metabolism 268.6 (1995): E1192-E1198.
- Astrup, A., et al. “Caffeine: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of its thermogenic, metabolic, and cardiovascular effects in healthy volunteers.” The American journal of clinical nutrition 51.5 (1990): 759-767.
- Costill, D. L., Gl P. Dalsky, and W. J. Fink. “Effects of caffeine ingestion on metabolism and exercise performance.” Medicine and science in sports 10.3 (1977): 155-158.
- Graham, T. E., and L. L. Spriet. “Metabolic, catecholamine, and exercise performance responses to various doses of caffeine.” Journal of Applied Physiology 78.3 (1995): 867-874.
- Graham, Terry E. “Caffeine and exercise.” Sports medicine 31.11 (2001): 785-807
- Graham, Terry E., Jorn W. Helge, David A. MacLean, Bente Kiens, and Erik A. Richter. “Caffeine Ingestion Does Not Alter Carbohydrate or Fat Metabolism in Human Skeletal Muscle during Exercise.” The Journal of Physiology 529.3 (2000): 837-47.
- Ono, Yuka, et al. “Anti-obesity effect of< i> Nelumbo nucifera leaves extract in mice and rats.” Journal of Ethnopharmacology 106.2 (2006): 238-244.
- Nojima, Hiroshi, Mari Okazaki, and Ikuko Kimura. “Counter effects of higenamine and coryneine, components of aconite root, on acetylcholine release from motor nerve terminal in mice.” Journal of Asian natural products research 2.3 (2000): 195-203.
- Bai, Gang, et al. “Identification of higenamine in Radix Aconiti Lateralis Preparata as a beta2‐adrenergic receptor agonist1.” Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 29.10 (2008): 1187-1194.
- Barwell, C. J., et al. “Deamination of hordenine by monoamine oxidase and its action on vasa deferentia of the rat.” Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology41.6 (1989): 421-423.
- Cauli, Omar, et al. “Subchronic caffeine exposure induces sensitization to caffeine and cross-sensitization to amphetamine ipsilateral turning behavior independent from dopamine release.” Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 28.10 (2003): 1752-1759.
- Wang, Yuanyuan, et al. “Theacrine, a purine alkaloid with anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities.” Fitoterapia 81.6 (2010): 627-631.
- Brown, C. M., et al. “Activities of octopamine and synephrine stereoisomers on α‐adrenoceptors.” British journal of pharmacology 93.2 (1988): 417-429.
- Ostojic, Sergej M. “Yohimbine: the effects on body composition and exercise performance in soccer players.” Research in Sports Medicine 14.4 (2006): 289-299.
- Sax, L. “Yohimbine does not affect fat distribution in men.” International journal of obesity 15.9 (1991): 561-565.
- Feduccia Tayebati, Seyed Khosrow, et al. “Effect of choline-containing phospholipids on brain cholinergic transporters in the rat.” Journal of the neurological sciences302.1 (2011): 49-57.
- Tomassoni, Daniele, et al. “Effects of cholinergic enhancing drugs on cholinergic transporters in the brain and peripheral blood lymphocytes of spontaneously hypertensive rats.” Current Alzheimer Research 9.1 (2012): 120-127.
- Gimenez, Rosa, Josep Raich, and Juan Aguilar. “Changes in brain striatum dopamine and acetylcholine receptors induced by chronic CDP‐choline treatment of aging mice.” British journal of pharmacology 104.3 (1991): 575-578.
- Shah, Siddharth N. “Adjuvant role of vitamin B analogue (sulbutiamine) with anti-infective treatment in infection associated asthenia.” The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 51 (2003): 891-895.
- Tiev, K. P., J. Cabane, and J. C. Imbert. “[Treatment of chronic postinfectious fatigue: randomized double-blind study of two doses of sulbutiamine (400-600 mg/day) versus placebo].” La Revue de medecine interne/fondee… par la Societe nationale francaise de medecine interne 20.10 (1999): 912-918.
- Feduccia, Allison A., et al. “Locomotor activation by theacrine, a purine alkaloid structurally similar to caffeine: Involvement of adenosine and dopamine receptors.” Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 102.2 (2012): 241-248.
- Habowski, S. M., et al. “The effects of TeacrineTM, a nature-identical purine alkaloid, on subjective measures of cognitive function, psychometric and hemodynamic indices in healthy humans: a randomized, double-blinded crossover pilot trial.” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition11.Suppl 1 (2014): P49.