Rhino Black is the latest pre-workout by MuscleSport and, based on the formula, it is definitely the best we’ve seen from the brand so far…FIND IT HERE
Citrulline Malate is simply the amino acid L-Citrulline bonded with Malic Acid, usually in a 2:1 ratio, as is the case in Dynamik Muscle Savage Roar.
Studies have shown that Citrulline Malate can effectively enhance muscular endurance and improve anaerobic capacity. 6-8g is considered the clinical range, though most pre-workout supplements contain far less.
Rhino Black contains 6g of Citrulline Malate per serving, a true clinical dose.
Trimethylglycine, AKA Betaine, has been studied fairly extensively as a performance enhancing compound. It has been shown to increase strength and power output as well as favorably influence certain aspects of recovery exercise recovery.
However, most of the research has been conducted using daily doses of 2.5g and MuscleSport lists the amount of Betaine in Rhino Black at 1.5g per serving. Not the lowest dose we’ve seen, but not exactly one that can be considered highly effective.
Agmatine hasn’t been as extensively researched as Citrulline or Betaine, but the preliminary research that does exist suggests that it is capable of increasing Endothelial Nitric Oxide production by acting on the enzyme Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS).
Average doses range from 500-1500mg, with the amount of Agmatine in Rhino Black falling right in the middle at 1000mg. As far as anecdotal evidence suggests, 1000mg is a pretty effective dose.
However, as a recovery-aid, Taurine is actually quite effective and has been shown in multiple studies to reduce oxidative stress in muscle tissue caused by exercise.
Rhino Black contains 1000mg of Taurine, an effective dose with regards to the recovery benefits.
Nitrosigine is a novel form of Arginine which is synthesized by bonding L-Arginine with Silicon. Preliminary research indicates that it is absorbed much more efficiently than regular L-Arginine.
Rhino Black contains 750mg of Nitrosigine, a fairly standard dose.
L-Ornothine has been shown to improve muscular endurance, specifically by acting as an Ammonia buffer in muscle tissue. However, Rhino Black contains just 750mg of Ornithine per serving, significantly less than what has been used clinically and therefore not a dose that can be considered effective.
Beta Vulgaris is simply Beets. Its use in pre-workout supplements stems from the fact that Beets are considered good sources of Nitrate, the chemical precursor to Nitric Oxide. Indeed, studies using Beet Root juice and whole Beets have found that Nitrate supplementation can effectively improve endurance.
Unfortunately, such improvements have only been noted using 300-600mg of Nitrate daily. Beet Root extract is simply not high enough in Ntirate to actually yield an effective dose.
MuscleSport doesn’t disclose the amount of Nitrate present in the Beta Vulgaris in Rhino Black, probably because it is extremely low, perhaps non-existent.
So, in the context of Rhino Black, we’d consider Beta Vulgaris a pretty useless ingredient, though it doesn’t hurt.
Beta-Alanine is the rate limiting amino acid needed for Carnosine synthesis. In muscle tissue, Carnosine acts as a lactic acid buffer, effectively delaying fatigue in the working muscle.
Daily supplementation with Beta-Alanine (3-6g) has been shown to increase muscle Carnosine levels quite significantly, resulting in noticeable performance enhancement.
Rhino Black contains 3.2g of Beta-Alanine per serving, a true clinical dose.
Creatine Magnesium Chelate
Creatine Magnesium Chelate is simply Creatine that has been chelated (bonded), in this case with Magnesium. While Creatine Magnesium Chelate isn’t any more effective than standard Creatine Monohydrate, it may result in slightly less water retention, at least in the beginning.
Rhino Black contains 2g per serving, not exactly a highly effective dose but may potentially be enough to maintain Creatine stores in muscle tissue.
Tyrosine is an amino acid that serves as a precursor to Dopamine and Noradrenaline (first it must be converted into L-Dopa). Dopamine and Noradrenaline are both responsible for focus, mood, and attention, and tend to be depleted by rigorous exercise.
While Tyrosine is unable to outright increase levels of Dopamine and/or Noradrenaline, it does appear to help maintain levels in stressful situations when they would otherwise be depleted. Exercise would be one such situation.
Rhino Black contains 750mg of Tyrosine, not a particularly effective dose.
Caffeine provides mental alertness and increases perceived energy levels. It primarily works by releasing catecholamines (Noradrenaline, Dopamine, etc.), but has additional mechanisms by which it may enhance exercise capacity/performance.
Rhino Black contains three forms of Caffeine: Caffeine Anhydrous (regular Caffeine), Dicaffeine Malate (Caffeine + Malic Acid), and Caffeine Citrate (Caffeine + Citric Acid).
Choline is required for the production of Acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter associated with cognitive function as well as the mind-muscle-connection. Rhino Black contains two forms: CDP Choline and Choline Bitatrate. Out of the two, CDP Choline is certainly the more potent, but we don’t know exactly how much of each is in there
Hordenine appears to work via inhibition of the enzyme Monoamine Oxidase which is responsible for the breakdown of Noradrenaline (and other Monoamines). For this reason it is thought to be synergistic with Caffeine and may effectively amplify its effects.
Rhino Black contains 75mg, a fairly hefty dose relative to most other Hordenine-containing pre-workout supplements.
The Bottom Line
Although some of the ingredients in Rhino Black may be slightly under-dosed, the formula is extremely solid overall. There is no particular area in which it is lacking and is definitely the best pre-workout released by MuscleSport to date. If you’re looking for pumps, endurance, and energy/focus, Rhino Black may be worth considering.
Still don’t know which pre-workout is right for you? Check out our Top 10 Pre-Workout Supplements List!