HyperMax is Performax Labs’ pre-workout which contains a variety of ingredients for pump, endurance, and mental stimulation…[Skip to the Bottom Line]
Beta-Alanine is the rate limiting amino acid in the synthesis of the dipeptide, Carnosine, which acts as a lactic acid buffer in muscle tissue. Reducing the build-up of lactic acid can directly enhance muscular endurance, and this has been demonstrated in dozens of studies.
A 2002 study from the “Japanese Journal of Physiology” which measured the Carnosine levels of sprinters found that individuals with higher muscular Carnosine levels exhibited higher power output in the latter half of a 30m sprint (due to less lactic acid build-up). Multiple studies have confirmed that Beta Alanine supplementation increases muscular Carnosine in a dose dependent manner. In particular, a 2012 study published in “Amino Acids” found that subjects who consumed 1.6 or 3.2 grams of Beta Alanine daily experienced significant increases in muscle Carnosine in as little as two weeks, with the higher dose achieving a higher concentration of Carnosine.
HyperMax contains 1.6 of Beta-Alanine per serving, technically an effective dose. At the maximum serving size (two scoops), the formula provides a highly effective 3.2g per serving.
Choline, once inside the body, is converted into the neurotransmitter Acetylcholine which is associated with many functions including (but not limited to) memory, attention, and muscle control. It is the neurotransmitter most closely associated with the “mind-muscle connection” (although this may be something of an over-simplification), and therefore of much interest to athletes and bodybuilders alike.
Choline Bitartrate is generally considered the least bioavailable form of Choline, but may have its own performance enhancement benefits.
A 2012 study published in the “British Journal of Nutrition” found that 1 gram of Choline Bitartrate was able to significantly increase, not only plasma choline levels, but also plasma Betaine levels. Betaine itself is commonly included in pre-workout formulas as it has been shown, in some cases, to increase power output. While Choline Bitartrate has not been studied in regards to performance enhancement, it is just as effective at increasing Betaine as supplemental Betaine, meaning it may very well convey the same performance enhancement benefits.
HyperMax contains 250mg of Choline Bitartrate per serving.
Glycerol has become pretty popular over last couple years as a pump-inducing ingredient in pre-workout supplements. It’s mechanism of action is simple: Glycerol draws water into cells which can directly enhance what we all know as “The Pump”. Beyond that, Glycerol has been alleged to have actual performance enhancement implications as well.
A 1996 study, published in the “International Journal of Sports Medicine”, found that Glycerol supplementation prior to exercise increased endurance in cyclists. These findings were replicated in a 1999 study from the “European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology” in which pre-exercise Glycerol supplementation enhanced time performance (also in cyclists).
A 2003 study, published in the “Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise”, found that, while post-exercise Glycerol supplementation prevented exercise-induced dehydration, this had no impact on performance measures (compared to placebo).
The research as a whole indicates that Glycerol can be an effective pump agent (due to water retention), but may only noticeably enhance performance (endurance not strength) during long-duration exercise when dehydration becomes a contributing factor to fatigue.
HyperMax contains 1000mg of Glycerol Monostearate which is definitely enough to induce some noticeable pumps.
In the past few years, Agmatine has gone from a rare ingredient to pre-workout staple, though it remains seriously under-researched relative to other popular pre-workout ingredients. Agmatine has been demonstrated to up-regulate Endothelial Nitric Oxide (eNOS), sometimes referred to as the “good” NOS, while inhibiting the other NOS enzymes (the “bad” NOS) in vitro, but human studies are non-existent.
HyperMax contains the industry standard 500mg dose of Agmatine.
Norvaline is a close chemical relative of the popular amino acid Valine, though its effects are different. Norvaline has been shown to inhibit Arginase, the enzyme responsible for the breakdown of Arginine both in vitro and in vivo (rats). The result would theoretically be an increase in Arginine, which would result in more Nitric Oxide. However, Norvaline has never been studied in humans as it relates to performance enhancement, so for now we are left with only a theoretical mechanism of action. Given a lack of human studies, an optimal dose has not been established for Norvaline.
However, average doses range from 100-200mg. HyperMax contains a full 200mg per serving, more than Norvaline-containing pre-workouts.
Caffeine is a well-established ergogenic aid, oral consumption of which triggers the release of Catcholamines (Noradrenaline, Dopamine, Adrenaline, etc.), generally inducing a state of increased alertness, focus, and perceived energy.
Additionally, Caffeine can enhance calcium-ion release in muscle tissue, which directly increases muscle contraction force. Rather than discuss dozens of studies, we’ll leave it at this: Caffeine is an extremely effective ergogenic aid, though tolerance build-up is certainly an issue to keep in mind.
Performax does not disclose the exact dose of Caffeine in HyperMax, but we’d estimate its somewhere in the 100-200mg per serving.
4-amino-2-methylpentane citrate, also known as 1,3 dimethylbutylamine, bares chemical similarities to 1,3 dimethylamylamine (DMAA), the compound that became wildly popular among pre-workouts and fat-burners before being banned by the FDA. Like DMAA, very little is known about 1,3 dimethylbutylamine, other than that it has a very similar chemical structure so it should have similar effects (though not as potent).
Beta-Phenylethylamine can induce a short, but powerful release of Catecholamines (Dopamine, Adrenaline, Noradrenaline). While studies testing the effects of PEA supplementation on exercise performance are non-existent, a boost in Catecholamines may certainly translate into more energy in the gym, resulting in a more intense workout.
The effects of Phenylethylamine tend to degrade fairly quickly, so it is often accompanied by Hordenine, as is the case in HyperMax.
Despite its escalating popularity in pre-workout and weight-loss supplements, Hordenine remains very under-researched. In vitro and animal studies indicate that its primary mechanism of action is via Momoamine Oxidase inhibition, with oral doses being shown to augment Noradrenaline-induced muscle contraction while not directly inducing contractions itself. So, rather than acting as a stand-alone stimulant, Hordenine can amplify/extend the effects of other stimulants by blocking the reuptake of Noradrenaline (and other Monoamines). By blocking its reuptake, Hordenine allows more Noradrenaline to remain in the synaptic space, ultimately extending/augmenting its lipolytic effects.
Higenamine, commonly reffered to as norcoclaurine, has gained some traction in the supplement industry as a stimulant fat-burner because of the chemical similarities it shares with ephedrine (now banned). Like Ephedrine, Higenamine acts as Beta(2)adrenergic agonist, meaning it stimulates the beta(2) adrenergic receptors which induce lipolysis (fat burning). In addition to its fat-burning potential, Higenamine has also been demonstrated in vitro to increase acetylcholine levels, though these findings have not yet been replicated in humans.
RAUWOLFIA VOMITORIA ROOT EXTRACT (STD. MIN. 90% RAUWOLSCINE):
Rauwolscine (also known as alpha-yohimbine) is what is known as a ‘stereoisomer’ of Yohimbine, meaning it is chemically similar in structure. Because of this similarity, Rauwolscine produces similar effects.
Rauwolscine is one of the primary ingredients responsible for that feeling of “lazer-sharp focus” that many pre-workouts claim to give you. So, in the context of HyperMax it is quite effective and certainly helps to ensure that the product lives up to the label claims.
THE BOTTOM LINE:
Despite most of the emphasis being placed on the stimulant-component, HyperMax is actually an all-around effective pre-workout which will provide a noticeable pump and endurance-boost, not just a stimulant rush. That being said, the “Energy & Drive” blend is definitely something special and is ultimately what prompted us to declare HyperMax our top pick for the stim-lovers out there. At about 70 cents per serving, HyperMax can definitely be considered competitively priceed.
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