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Genomyx Endurate Review

Endurate

Endurate is a relatively basic (but complete) non-stimulant pre-workout by Genomyx which contains several well-established ergogenic aids, most of which are clinically dosed…

SKIP TO THE BOTTOM LINE

Creatine Monohydrate

Creatine is the most extensively studied ergogenic aid currently available, and by far one of the most effective at increasing both strength and muscle mass. Creatine’s primary mechanism of action is its ability to rapidly produce Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) to support cellular energy. During high intensity exercise, Creatine is used for energy which tends to spare the glycogen that would normally be used. Since lactic acid is a by-product created when glucose is burned for energy, Creatine may also indirectly reduce lactic acid build-up which poses a secondary mechanism by which Creatine can potentially enhance performance.

Creatine comes in various forms, the most common of which is Creatine Monohydrate, which is formed by dehydrating a solution of Creatine, where a single water molecule remains bound to the Creatine powder. No other form of Creatine has demonstrated any clear superiority over Creatine Monohydrate, so we generally recommend sticking with this particular form. The optimal dose of Creatine is generally around 5 grams per day, taken consistently (regardless of training days) for several weeks. Genomyx has opted to include the recommended 5 gram dose per serving of Endurate.

Beta-Alanine

Beta-Alanine is a precursor to the amino acid Carnosine, which functions as a lactic acid buffer capable of reducing fatigue in the working muscle. Though it takes time to accumulate in muscle tissue, Beta-Alanine supplementation, for at least two weeks, is highly effective at increasing muscular Carnosine concentration.

One study in particular that measured the Carnosine levels of sprinters found that individuals with higher muscular Carnosine levels exhibited higher power output in the latter half of a 30m sprint (because they had less lactic acid build-up). Multiple studies have confirmed that Beta Alanine supplementation increases muscular Carnosine in a dose dependent manner. In particular, a 2012 study published in “Amino Acids” found that subjects who consumed 1.6 or 3.2 grams of Beta Alanine daily experienced significant increases in muscle Carnosine in as little as two weeks, with the higher dose achieving a higher concentration of Carnosine. The doses used in this study, 1.6 and 3.2g, are the most common doses seen in supplements.

A 2008 study, published in the International Journal of Sports Medicine, noted improvements in power in resistance trained males using 4.8g daily for 30 days. This same 4.8 gram dose was also shown to increase muscular endurance in sprinters in a 2007 study from the “Journal of Applied Physiology”.

Endurate contains 3.2 grams of Beta-Alanine per serving, meaning muscle Carnosine saturation can be achieved relatively quickly (a couple weeks) if taken on a daily basis.

Betaine Anhydrous

Betaine (also known as Trimethylglycine) is the amino acid Glycine with the addition of three methyl groups attached. It is alleged to increase power output and strength by increasing cellular swelling, a phenomenon well established with Creatine supplementation, which can drastically reduce the damaging effect of outside stimuli (such as exercise) on the working muscle. So far, Betaine has been investigated in several human studies, and has had some pretty encouraging results in most.

A 2009 study, published in the “Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition”, found that 2.5g Betaine (split into two 1.25mg doses) over the course of 15 days increased muscle endurance during squats and appeared to improve the quality of each rep (likely because they were easier).

A 2010 study, again from the “Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition”, found that the same supplementation protocol (2.5g daily in two equal doses) effectively increased isometric bench press and squat force as well as bench throw and vertical jump power.

A 2011 study, published in “The Journal of Strength & Condition Research” noted improvements in number of bench press repetitions and total volume load with same 2.5g dosing protocol for 14 days. However, another 2011 study from the same journal noted no such improvements in power output or number of reps performed, though there were subjective reports of fatigue reduction.

A 2012 study from the “Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition” noted improvements in cycling sprint power after just one week of supplementation at the standard 2.5g dose.

Most recently, a 2013 study published in the Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition” noted increases in arm size, bench press work capacity, overall body composition, and a trend toward increased power (but not strength). This was the first study to specifically measure the effects of Betaine supplementation on body composition, so further study is needed to corroborate these findings.

Genomyx has chosen to include a highly effective 2500mg dose of Betaine per serving of Endurate, consistent with the majority of the above mentioned studies, and removing the need to take multiple daily doses.

HICA

A-Hydroxyisocaproic Acid (HICA) is a product of Leucine metabolism which is touted to be an anti-catabolic agent. Currently, very little research exists on HICA in general, but the one human study is certainly encouraging.

A 2010 study, published in the “Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition”, found that HICA supplementation (1500mg daily) decreased soreness by about 23% and increased lean mass (no decrease in fat) in healthy subjects, compared to the placebo group.

Ultimately, HICA may compliment the effects of Leucine by creating a more pro-anabolic environment, but given that only one study has been conducted, a noticeable increase in lean mass cannot be guaranteed. Endurate contains 500mg of HICA per serving, less than the 1500mg dose that was used in the afore mentioned study, but still possibly effective.

The Bottom Line

Endurate is a concise blend of four proven performance enhancing ingredients which are all, for the most part, clinically dosed. The only improvement we would like to see with regards to dosing would be an additional gram of HICA, because the lone study that exists used 1500mg, rather than the 500mg dose found in Endurate. At a little less than $1 per serving, Endurate is somewhat competitively priced (given an estimated reconstruction cost of around $1.25), and we’d ultimately recommend the formula to anyone looking to gain the strength and endurance benefits associated with Creatine, Beta-Alanine, and Betaine, while avoiding stimulants completely.

Still not sure which pre-workout supplement is right for you?  Check out our Top 10 Pre-Workout Supplements List!

REFERENCES
  1. Kraemer, William J., and Jeff S. Volek. “Creatine supplementation: its role in human performance.” Clinics in sports medicine 18.3 (1999): 651-666.
  2. Thompson, C. H., et al. “Effect of creatine on aerobic and anaerobic metabolism in skeletal muscle in swimmers.” British journal of sports medicine 30.3 (1996): 222-225.
  3. Casey, Anna, and Paul L. Greenhaff. “Does dietary creatine supplementation play a role in skeletal muscle metabolism and performance?.” The American journal of clinical nutrition 72.2 (2000).
  4. Stellingwerff, Trent, et al. “Effect of two β-alanine dosing protocols on muscle carnosine synthesis and washout.” Amino Acids 42.6 (2012): 2461-2472.
  5. Hoffman J, et al. Beta-alanine and the hormonal response to exercise. Int J Sports Med. (2008)
  6. Derave, Wim, et al. “β-Alanine supplementation augments muscle carnosine content and attenuates fatigue during repeated isokinetic contraction bouts in trained sprinters.” Journal of applied physiology 103.5 (2007): 1736-1743.
  7. Wilson, Jacob M., et al. “Beta-alanine supplementation improves aerobic and anaerobic indices of performance.” Strength & Conditioning Journal 32.1 (2010): 71-78.
  8. Suzuki, Yasuhiro, Osamu Ito, Naoki Mukai, Hideyuki Takahashi, and Kaoru Takamatsu. “High Level of Skeletal Muscle Carnosine Contributes to the Latter Half of Exercise Performance during 30-s Maximal Cycle Ergometer Sprinting.” The Japanese Journal of Physiology 52.2 (2002): 199-205.
  9. Sale, Craig, Bryan Saunders, and Roger C. Harris. “Effect of beta-alanine supplementation on muscle carnosine concentrations and exercise performance.” Amino acids 39.2 (2010): 321-333.
  10. Hoffman, Jay R., et al. “Effect of 15 days of betaine ingestion on concentric and eccentric force outputs during isokinetic exercise.” The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research 25.8 (2011): 2235-2241.
  11. Cholewa, Jason M., et al. “Effects of betaine on body composition, performance, and homocysteine thiolactone.” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 10.1 (2013): 39.
  12. i, Cheng, Masao Shinohara, John Kuhlenkamp, Christine Chan, and Neil Kaplowitz. “Mechanisms of Protection by the Betaine-homocysteine Methyltransferase/betaine System in HepG2 Cells and Primary Mouse Hepatocytes.” Hepatology 46.5 (2007): 1586-596.
  13. Hoffman, Jay R., et al. “Effect of betaine supplementation on power performance and fatigue.” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 6.1 (2009): 1-10.
  14. Lee, Elaine C., et al. “Ergogenic effects of betaine supplementation on strength and power performance.” J Int Soc Sports Nutr 7 (2010): 27.
  15. Trepanowski, John F., et al. “The effects of chronic betaine supplementation on exercise performance, skeletal muscle oxygen saturation and associated biochemical parameters in resistance trained men.” The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research 25.12 (2011): 3461-3471.
  16. Mero, Antti A., et al. “Effects of alfa-hydroxy-isocaproic acid on body composition, DOMS and performance in athletes.” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 7.1 (2010)

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