Reviews

RSP Nutrition DyNO Pre-Workout Review

DyNO is RSP Nutrition’s most recent pre-workout supplement. It contains a combination of stimulant and non-stimulant ingredients, most of which can be found in many pre-workout supplements…

RSP Nutrition DyNO Pre-Workout

FIND IT HERE

Beta-Alanine

Beta-Alanine is a precursor to the amino acid Carnosine, which functions as a lactic acid buffer capable of preventing fatigue in the working muscle. Though it takes time to accumulate in muscle tissue, Beta-Alanine supplementation is an extremely effective (and perfectly safe) method of increasing muscular endurance.

One study in particular that measured the Carnosine levels of sprinters found that individuals with higher muscular Carnosine levels exhibited higher power output in the latter half of a 30m sprint (because they had less lactic acid build-up).

Multiple studies have confirmed that Beta Alanine supplementation increases muscular Carnosine in a dose dependent manner. In particular, a 2012 study published in “Amino Acids” found that subjects who consumed 1.6 or 3.2 grams of Beta Alanine daily experienced significant increases in muscle Carnosine in as little as two weeks, with the higher dose achieving a higher concentration of Carnosine. The doses used in this study, 1.6 and 3.2g, are the most common doses seen in supplements.

A 2008 study, published in the International Journal of Sports Medicine, noted improvements in power in resistance trained males using 4.8g daily for 30 days. This same 4.8 gram dose was also shown to increase muscular endurance in sprinters in a 2007 study from the “Journal of Applied Physiology”.

DYNO contains a less than optimal, but still effective 2g of Beta-Alanine per serving. Users could certainly benefit from an extra gram or two, but 2g daily is enough to increase muscular Carnosine concentrations (though it may take longer).

Arginine AKG

Arginine is precursor to Nitric Oxide and it’s availability is an important factor in circulatory health and optimizing blood flow.  While Arginine, as an amino acid, certainly plays a critical role in these processes, it’s important to understand that very few studies have noted any sort of benefits when it comes to improving exercise capacity, let alone promoting pumps.

RSP uses a novel form of Arginine, known as Arginine AKG, which is allegedly better absorbed.  However, the only study which has actually tested the effects of  Arginine AKG on exercise performance failed to note any significant benefit.  We’re really not sure which brands keep using Arginine AKG.  It sucks…

Taurine

Despite its inclusion in energy drinks, Taurine is not a stimulant and does not increase perceived energy or focus. Rather, it is an amino acid with antioxidant properties with implications for exercise recovery as well as slight performance enhancement.

In a 2011 study from “Cell Biochemistry and Function” Taurine was shown to significantly reduce exercise-induced oxidative stress in skeletal muscle. These findings were consistent with those of an earlier (2004) study, published in “Amino Acids” which showed that Taurine may decrease exercise induced DNA damage, as well as “enhance the capacity of exercise due to its cellular protective properties”.

A recent 2013 study, also from “Amino Acids” noted a 1.7% improvement in 3k-time trial of runners after supplementing with Taurine, and these findings were further corroborated in a later 2013 study from “Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism “ in which Taurine supplementation was able to increase strength as well as decrease oxidative muscle damage.

DYNO contains an undisclosed amount of Taurine, though given it shares a 1670mg proprietary blend with 3 other ingredients, we’d estimate no more than 1000mg, an effective but not necessarily optimal dose.

Choline Bitartrate

Choline Bitartrate is one of the least bioavailable forms of Choline.  It may still be effective as a means of providing the body with Choline, some of which may be used to make Acetylcholine in the brain, but it requires much higher doses than other forms of Choline such as Choline CDP or Alpha GPC.

That said, RSP has dosed the Choline Bitartrate in DyNO fairly well, with 1000mg per serving, so there may be some benefit after all.

Caffeine Anhydrous

Caffeine consumption causes an increase in Catecholamines (Adrenaline, Noradrenaline, and Dopamine), which tend to increase focus, concentration, and perceived energy. This makes Caffeine an ideal ergogenic aid and countless studies have confirmed that Caffeine ingestion prior to exercise can effectively enhance various performance measures.

DyNO contains 300mg of Caffeine per serving, a fairly hefty dose which is sure to make most users more alert and focused during their workouts.

Alpha GPC

Alpha GPC is considered one of the most bioavailable sources of Choline and is one of the few that can effectively and efficiently cross the blood-brain-barrier where it can be used to create Acetylcholine.

Acetycholine is a neurotransmitter which is heavily involved in muscle contractions as well as certain aspects of cognitive function (attention, memory, etc.).  At higher doses (600mg), it has been shown to increase power output significantly with just one dose prior to working out.

Alpha GPC is really one of the most under-utilized ingredients in pre-workout supplements, probably because it tends to be fairly expensive.  RSP has included 200mg of Alpha GPC is the DyNO formula.  That’s definitely elss than what can be considered a “clinical dose”, but still more than many other pre-workouts use.

Bitter Orange

Bitter Orange extract is generally standardized for Synephrine (RSP makes no mention of the standardization on the label) as well as several other naturally occuring compounds such as Hordenine and Octopamine (again, no mention by RSP as to the constituents of this particular Bitter Orange extract).

Generally speaking, Bitter Orange extract can increase perceived energy, encourage fat-loss, and boost the metabolic rate (calorie burn).  RSP lists the total dose of Bitter Orange at 100mg.

Bioperine

Bioperine is a patented form of Black Pepper Extract which is generally standardized for Piperine. Several studies have found that Piperine can enhance the absorption of various nutrients when co-ingested. This enhanced absorption is due to the inhibition of certain enzymes which breakdown most compounds, as well as the slowing of intestinal transit (increasing the amount of time these compounds are exposed to the possibility of uptake). So, in the context of DYNO, Bioperine simply functions as a support ingredient to enhance the effectiveness of the overall formula.

The Bottom Line

RSP’s new (2016) DyNO formula is certainly an improvement over the old formula and we’re happy to see that the brand has decided to ditch the proprietary blends.  Unfortunately, there are still some ingredients which are either under-dosed or just ineffective, so it’s not as if the DyNO formula wil be making it to our Best Pre-Workouts List or anything.  Still, if you enjoyed the old formula, you may very well enjoy the new one.

With 300mg of Caffeine and some Bitter Orange Extract, users can expect a noticeable boost of energy and focus, but in the area of pumps and endurance, DyNO leaves something to be desired.

Still not sure which pre-workout is right for you?  Check out our Top 10 Pre-Workout Supplements List!

References

  1. Derave, Wim, et al. “β-Alanine supplementation augments muscle carnosine content and attenuates fatigue during repeated isokinetic contraction bouts in trained sprinters.” Journal of applied physiology 103.5 (2007): 1736-1743.
  2. Hoffman J, et al. Beta-alanine and the hormonal response to exercise. Int J Sports Med. (2008)
  3. Stellingwerff, Trent, et al. “Effect of two β-alanine dosing protocols on muscle carnosine synthesis and washout.” Amino Acids 42.6 (2012): 2461-2472.
  4. Wilson, Jacob M., et al. “Beta-alanine supplementation improves aerobic and anaerobic indices of performance.” Strength & Conditioning Journal 32.1 (2010): 71-78.
  5. Sale, Craig, Bryan Saunders, and Roger C. Harris. “Effect of beta-alanine supplementation on muscle carnosine concentrations and exercise performance.” Amino acids 39.2 (2010): 321-333.
  6. Suzuki, Yasuhiro, Osamu Ito, Naoki Mukai, Hideyuki Takahashi, and Kaoru Takamatsu. “High Level of Skeletal Muscle Carnosine Contributes to the Latter Half of Exercise Performance during 30-s Maximal Cycle Ergometer Sprinting.” The Japanese Journal of Physiology 52.2 (2002): 199-205.
  7. Bendahan, D., et al. “Citrulline/malate promotes aerobic energy production in human exercising muscle.” British journal of sports medicine 36.4 (2002): 282-289.
  8. Giannesini, Benoît, et al. “Citrulline malate supplementation increases muscle efficiency in rat skeletal muscle.” European journal of pharmacology 667.1 (2011): 100-104.
  9. Sureda, Antoni, et al. “Effects of L-citrulline oral supplementation on polymorphonuclear neutrophils oxidative burst and nitric oxide production after exercise.” Free radical research 43.9 (2009): 828-835.
  10. Shurtleff, David, et al. “Tyrosine reverses a cold-induced working memory deficit in humans.” Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 47.4 (1994): 935-941.
  11. Pérez-Guisado, Joaquín, and Philip M. Jakeman. “Citrulline malate enhances athletic anaerobic performance and relieves muscle soreness.” The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research 24.5 (2010): 1215-1222.
  12. Mun, Chin Hee, et al. “Regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase by agmatine after transient global cerebral ischemia in rat brain.” Anatomy & cell biology 43.3 (2010): 230-240.
  13. Morrissey, Jeremiah J., and Saulo Klahr. “Agmatine activation of nitric oxide synthase in endothelial cells.” Proceedings of the Association of American Physicians 109.1 (1997): 51-57.
  14. Abe, Kazuho, Yuzuru Abe, and Hiroshi Saito. “Agmatine suppresses nitric oxide production in microglia.” Brain research 872.1 (2000): 141-148.
  15. Huxtable, R. J. “Physiological actions of taurine.” Physiological reviews 72.1 (1992): 101-163.
  16. Matsuzaki, Yasushi, Teruo Miyazaki, Syunpei Miyakawa, Bernard Bouscarel, Tadashi Ikegami, and Naomi Tanaka. “Decreased Taurine Concentration in Skeletal Muscles after Exercise for Various Durations.” Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise34.5 (2002): 793-97.
  17. Matsuzaki, Yasushi., et al. “Decreased taurine concentration in skeletal muscles after exercise for various durations.” Medicine and science in sports and exercise 34.5 (2002): 793-797.
  18. Balshaw, Thomas G., et al. “The effect of acute taurine ingestion on 3-km running performance in trained middle-distance runners.” Amino acids 44.2 (2013): 555-561.
  19. Yatabe, Yoshihisa, et al. “Effects of taurine administration on exercise.” Taurine 7. Springer New York, 2009. 245-252
  20. da Silva, Luciano A., et al. “Effects of taurine supplementation following eccentric exercise in young adults.” Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism 39.1 (2013): 101-104.
  21. Beyranvand, Mohamad Reza, et al. “Effect of taurine supplementation on exercise capacity of patients with heart failure.” Journal of cardiology 57.3 (2011): 333-337.
  22. Zhang, M., et al. “Role of taurine supplementation to prevent exercise-induced oxidative stress in healthy young men.” Amino acids 26.2 (2004): 203-207.
  23. Silva, Luciano A., et al. “Taurine supplementation decreases oxidative stress in skeletal muscle after eccentric exercise.” Cell biochemistry and function 29.1 (2011): 43-49.
  24. Agharanya, Julius C., Raphael Alonso, and Richard J. Wurtman. “Changes in catecholamine excretion after short-term tyrosine ingestion in normally fed human subjects.” The American journal of clinical nutrition 34.1 (1981): 82-87.
  25. Shurtleff, David, et al. “Tyrosine reverses a cold-induced working memory deficit in humans.” Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 47.4 (1994): 935-941.
  26. Fernstrom, John D., and Madelyn H. Fernstrom. “Tyrosine, phenylalanine, and catecholamine synthesis and function in the brain.” The Journal of nutrition137.6 (2007): 1539S-1547S.
  27. Yeghiayan, Sylva K., et al. “Tyrosine improves behavioral and neurochemical deficits caused by cold exposure.” Physiology & behavior 72.3 (2001): 311-316.
  28. Banderet, Louis E., and Harris R. Lieberman. “Treatment with tyrosine, a neurotransmitter precursor, reduces environmental stress in humans.” Brain research bulletin 22.4 (1989): 759-762.
  29. Arciero, PAUL J., et al. “Effects of caffeine ingestion on NE kinetics, fat oxidation, and energy expenditure in younger and older men.” American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology And Metabolism 268.6 (1995): E1192-E1198.
  30. Astrup, A., et al. “Caffeine: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of its thermogenic, metabolic, and cardiovascular effects in healthy volunteers.” The American journal of clinical nutrition 51.5 (1990): 759-767.
  31. Costill, D. L., Gl P. Dalsky, and W. J. Fink. “Effects of caffeine ingestion on metabolism and exercise performance.” Medicine and science in sports 10.3 (1977): 155-158.
  32. Graham, T. E., and L. L. Spriet. “Metabolic, catecholamine, and exercise performance responses to various doses of caffeine.” Journal of Applied Physiology 78.3 (1995): 867-874.
  33. Graham, Terry E. “Caffeine and exercise.” Sports medicine 31.11 (2001): 785-807.
  34. Nojima, Hiroshi, Mari Okazaki, and Ikuko Kimura. “Counter effects of higenamine and coryneine, components of aconite root, on acetylcholine release from motor nerve terminal in mice.” Journal of Asian natural products research 2.3 (2000): 195-203.
  35. Bai, Gang, et al. “Identification of higenamine in Radix Aconiti Lateralis Preparata as a beta2‐adrenergic receptor agonist1.” Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 29.10 (2008): 1187-1194.
  36. Costill, D. L., Gl P. Dalsky, and W. J. Fink. “Effects of caffeine ingestion on metabolism and exercise performance.” Medicine and science in sports 10.3 (1977): 155-158.
  37. Liu, Xiu-jie, Henry N. Wagner Jr, and Shouchi Tao. “Measurement of effects of the Chinese herbal medicine higenamine on left ventricular function using a cardiac probe.” European journal of nuclear medicine 8.6 (1983): 233-236.
  38. Badmaev, Vladimir, Muhammed Majeed, and Lakshmi Prakash. “Piperine derived from black pepper increases the plasma levels of coenzyme Q10 following oral supplementation.” The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 11.2 (2000): 109-113.
  39. Majeed, Muhammed, and Lakshmi Prakash. “Targeting Optimal Nutrient Absorption with Phytonutrients.” (2007)
  40. Sheu, Joen‐Rong. “Pharmacological effects of rutaecarpine, an alkaloid isolated from Evodia rutaecarpa.” Cardiovascular drug reviews 17.3 (1999): 237-245.
  41. Noh, Keumhan, et al. “Effects of rutaecarpine on the metabolism and urinary excretion of caffeine in rats.” Archives of pharmacal research 34.1 (2011): 119-125.
  42. Tsai, Tung-Hu, Chun-Hao Chang, and Lie-Chwen Lin. “Effects of Evodia rutaecarpa and rutaecarpine on the pharmacokinetics of caffeine in rats.” Planta medica 71.07 (2005): 640-645.
  43. Noreen, Eric E., et al. “The effects of an acute dose of Rhodiola rosea on endurance exercise performance.” The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research 27.3 (2013): 839-847.
  44. De Bock, Katrien, et al. “Acute Rhodiola rosea intake can improve endurance exercise performance.” International journal of sport nutrition & exercise metabolism 14.3 (2004).
  45. Spasov, A. A., et al. “A double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of the stimulating and adaptogenic effect of< i> Rhodiola rosea SHR-5 extract on the fatigue of students caused by stress during an examination period with a repeated low-dose regimen.” Phytomedicine 7.2 (2000): 85-89.

 

Click to comment
To Top
shares