Reviews

PES Alphamine Review

Alphamine is a fat-burner made by Physique Enhancing Science (PES) which is unique in that it offers fully customizable doses (because its powder). Although the formula is relatively simple, Alphamine may be moderately effective as a fat-burner once the optimal dose is determined…

PES Alphamine

FIND IT HERE

Choline Bitartrate

Choline, once inside the body, is converted into the neurotransmitter acetylcholine which is associated with many functions including (but not limited to) memory, attention, and muscle control. It is the neurotransmitter most closely associated with the “mind-muscle connection” (although this may be something of an over-simplification), and therefore of much interest to athletes and bodybuilders alike.

While certain forms of choline may be associated with increased muscular power output (namely Alpha GPC), Choline Bitartrate is generally considered the least bioavailable choline source, though oral doses of 1000-2000mg have still been shown to increase serum choline levels significantly. While Choline’s weight loss potential alone is negligible, in the context of the Alphamine formula it may function as a nootropic to some degree. While it certainly is not the start attraction, there may be some sort of synergy.

HICA

A-Hydroxyisocaproic Acid (HICA) is a product of Leucine metabolism and is alleged to be an anti-catabolic agent. A 2010 study found that athletes who consumed 1500mg of HICA per day for four weeks experienced an increase in lean body mass, a decrease in delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) in the 4th week, but no noticeable increase in strength. Unfortunately, this is the only study directly testing the effects of HICA on muscle mass or strength so we don’t have much to go on, That being said, the preliminary evidence is promising for HICA as a potential body re-composition agent.

Eucommia Ulmoides

Eucommia Ulmoides Leaves generally consist of multiple compounds, not just Chlorogenic Acid, but it appears this particular extract is standardized for a high level of CA (98%), so we will focus solely on Chlorogenic Acid.

A 2010 study from “Food and Chemical Toxicology” found noted multiple anti-obesity effects of Chlorogenic Acid administered to mice including increase beta-oxidations. However, Chlorogenic Acid may also have an alternative mechanism of action via inhibition of carbohydrate absorption.

A 2007 study, published in the “Journal of International Medical Research”, found that 12 weeks of chlorogenic acid supplementation (in the form of enriched coffee) resulted in a reduction (6.9%) in glucose absorption in healthy volunteers. A more recent 2009 study found that 1 gram Chlorogenic Acid effective reduced insulin and glucose spikes immediately after a meal in overweight men.

Olive Leaf Extract

Olive leaf extract contains Oleuropein, a phenol which possesses antioxidant and antiinflamatory properties. In additions to these properties, a 2007 study from “The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry” demonstrated increase noradrenaline and adrenaline levels in rats following injection of the extract. While more studies are needed to demonstrate this same effect in humans, the ingredient makes for an interesting ingredient to pre-workout supplements.

Similar findings were noted in a 2013 study published in “The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry” in which rats fed a diet high in Oleuropein experienced significantly increased noradrenaline levels (measured by urine), though it’s worth mentioning that this was not accompanied by the usual decrease in weight.

Infact, Oleuropein may actually downregulate beta-adrenergic receptors, as evidenced in a 2012 study from “The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition”. However, given that there are other beta-agonists in the Alphamine formula, this mild beta-blocking effect is not a cause for alarm.

Caffeine

Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive substance in the world, and is a well-established ergogenic aid. Caffeine consumption causes an increase in Catecholamines (Adrenaline, Noradrenaline, and Dopamine), which tend to increase focus, concentration, and perceived energy while simultaneously promoting fat oxidation.

However, the weight loss effects of caffeine tend to fade with prolonged use, so it does not appear as though caffeine is a long-term effective fat burner. While caffeine’s weight loss potential is negligible, it increases focus and perceived energy in most people, which generally leads to more intense workouts (thus burning more fat), and may potentiate the action of other stimulants like yohimbine.

Higenamine

Higenamine, commonly reffered to as norcoclaurine, has gained some traction in the supplement industry as a stimulant fat-burner because of the chemical similarities it shares with ephedrine (now banned). Like Ephedrine, Higenamine acts as Beta(2)adrenergic agonist, meaning it stimulates the beta(2) adrenergic receptors which induce lipolysis (fat burning).

In addition to its fat-burning potential, Higenamine has also been demonstrated in vitro to increase acetylcholine levels, though these findings have not yet been replicated in humans. Overall, there is certainly preliminary support for Higenamine as a fat-burner and potential ergogenic aid, but because no human studies exist there is recommended effective dose. Given that Higenamine is a stimulant, those sensitive to stimulants may react poorly.

Yohimbe Extract

The primary active alkaloid of Yohimbe (Pausinystalia Yohimbe) is Yohimbine, which acts as an alpha-2 receptor antagonist, meaning it inhibits the receptor responsible for blocking lipolysis (fat burning). By blocking the action of this receptor Yohimbine essentially allows for more lipolysis to occur.

A 2006 study showed that while there were no increases in strength, supplementation induced fat loss in athletes (soccer players). As previously stated, Yohimbine directly acts on alpha-2 receptors, but its fat loss capabilities may also be magnified by its ability to increase the catecholamine neurotransmitters adrenaline and noradrenaline which in turn activate beta-receptors to stimulate lipolysis.

However, this increase in catecholamines may fade with prolonged use (more than 2 weeks). That being said, combined with exercise (exercise releases catecholamines itself) or other stimulants (like caffeine), Yohimbine’s fat burning effects can be quite significant. As mentioned above, Yohimbe Extract also contains othe alkaloid such as Rauwolscine, sometimes referred to as alpha-yohimbine due to its similar chemical structure. Because of this similarity, Rauwolscine produces similar effects, although perhaps to a milder degree.

THE BOTTOM LINE

Alphamine can certainly be classified as a stimulant-based fat-burner, but the a more technical term “beta-agonist-based” might be more appropriate. The formula contains several compounds that act on beta-adrenergic receptors to induce fat loss as well as yohimbine which is an alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonist. The combination of these ingredients together will result in fat-loss in most individuals.

Still not sure which fat-burner to go with?  Check out our Top 10 Fat-Burners List!

References

  1. Oi-Kano, Yuriko, et al. “Extra virgin olive oil increases uncoupling protein 1 content in brown adipose tissue and enhances noradrenaline and adrenaline secretions in rats.” The Journal of nutritional biochemistry 18.10 (2007): 685-692.
  2. Castañer, Olga, et al. “Protection of LDL from oxidation by olive oil polyphenols is associated with a downregulation of CD40-ligand expression and its downstream products in vivo in humans.” The American journal of clinical nutrition 95.5 (2012): 1238-1244.
  3. Impellizzeri, Daniela, et al. “The effects of oleuropein aglycone, an olive oil compound, in a mouse model of carrageenan-induced pleurisy.” Clinical Nutrition 30.4 (2011): 533-540.
  4. Oi-Kano, Yuriko, et al. “Oleuropein supplementation increases urinary noradrenaline and testicular testosterone levels and decreases plasma corticosterone level in rats fed high-protein diet.” The Journal of nutritional biochemistry 24.5 (2013): 887-893.
  5. Sandage Jr, Bobby W., LuAnn A. Sabounjian, and Richard J. Wurtman. “Effects of Choline on Athletic Performance and Fatigue.” Workshop on the Role of Dietary Supplements for Physically Active People. 1996.
  6. Spector, SIDNEY A., et al. “Effect of choline supplementation on fatigue in trained cyclists.” Medicine and science in sports and exercise 27.5 (1995): 668-673.
  7. Warber, John P., et al. “The effects of choline supplementation on physical performance.” International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism10.2 (2000): 170-181.
  8. Wallace, Julie MW, et al. “Choline supplementation and measures of choline and betaine status: a randomised, controlled trial in postmenopausal women.”British Journal of Nutrition 108.07 (2012): 1264-1271.
  9. Cohen, Bruce M., et al. “Decreased brain choline uptake in older adults: an in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.” Jama 274.11 (1995): 902-907.
  10. Van Dijk, AiméE E., et al. “Acute effects of decaffeinated coffee and the major coffee components chlorogenic acid and trigonelline on glucose tolerance.”Diabetes Care 32.6 (2009): 1023-1025.
  11. Thom, E. “The effect of chlorogenic acid enriched coffee on glucose absorption in healthy volunteers and its effect on body mass when used long-term in overweight and obese people.” Journal of International Medical Research 35.6 (2007): 900-908.
  12. Cho, Ae-Sim, et al. “Chlorogenic acid exhibits anti-obesity property and improves lipid metabolism in high-fat diet-induced-obese mice.” Food and Chemical Toxicology 48.3 (2010): 937-943.
  13. Costill, D. L., Gl P. Dalsky, and W. J. Fink. “Effects of caffeine ingestion on metabolism and exercise performance.” Medicine and science in sports 10.3 (1977): 155-158.
  14. Graham, T. E., and L. L. Spriet. “Metabolic, catecholamine, and exercise performance responses to various doses of caffeine.” Journal of Applied Physiology 78.3 (1995): 867-874.
  15. Graham, Terry E. “Caffeine and exercise.” Sports medicine 31.11 (2001): 785-807.
  16. Ostojic, Sergej M. “Yohimbine: the effects on body composition and exercise performance in soccer players.” Research in Sports Medicine 14.4 (2006): 289-299.
  17. Dhir, Ashish, and S. K. Kulkarni. “Effect of addition of yohimbine (alpha-2-receptor antagonist) to the antidepressant activity of fluoxetine or venlafaxine in the mouse forced swim test.” Pharmacology 80.4 (2007): 239-243.
  18. Arciero, PAUL J., et al. “Effects of caffeine ingestion on NE kinetics, fat oxidation, and energy expenditure in younger and older men.” American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology And Metabolism 268.6 (1995): E1192-E1198.
  19. Astrup, A., et al. “Caffeine: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of its thermogenic, metabolic, and cardiovascular effects in healthy volunteers.” The American journal of clinical nutrition 51.5 (1990): 759-767.
  20. Mero, Antti A., et al. “Effects of alfa-hydroxy-isocaproic acid on body composition, DOMS and performance in athletes.” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 7.1 (2010)
  21. Nojima, Hiroshi, Mari Okazaki, and Ikuko Kimura. “Counter effects of higenamine and coryneine, components of aconite root, on acetylcholine release from motor nerve terminal in mice.” Journal of Asian natural products research 2.3 (2000): 195-203.
  22. Bai, Gang, et al. “Identification of higenamine in Radix Aconiti Lateralis Preparata as a beta2‐adrenergic receptor agonist1.” Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 29.10 (2008): 1187-1194

1 Comment
To Top
shares