Nitramine is a pre-workout by Myokem which contains a combination of stimulant and non-stimulant ingredients…FIND IT HERE
Betaine (also known as Trimethylglycine) is the amino acid Glycine with the addition of three methyl groups attached. Betaine is alleged to increase power output and strength by increasing cellular swelling, a phenomenon well established with Creatine supplementation, which can drastically reduce the damaging effect of outside stimuli (such as exercise) on the working muscle. So far, Betaine has been investigated in several human studies, and has had some pretty encouraging results in most.
We discuss the strength-enhancing benefits of Betaine in this article.
Nitramine contains 2000mg of Betaine, just short of the 2500mg standard used in studies most of the studies mentioned above.
Beta-Alanine is a precursor to the amino acid Carnosine (formed by combining Histidine and Beta-Alanine). Carnosine acts a lactic acid buffer, effectively delaying fatigue in the working muscle. Beta Alanine takes time to accumulate, but if taken over a sustained period of time (2+ weeks), can be an extremely effective ergogenic aid with a strong safety profile.
One study in particular that measured the Carnosine levels of sprinters found that individuals with higher muscular Carnosine levels exhibited higher power output in the latter half of a 30m sprint (because they had less lactic acid build-up). Multiple studies have confirmed that Beta Alanine supplementation increases muscular Carnosine in a dose dependent manner. In particular, a 2012 study published in “Amino Acids” found that subjects who consumed 1.6 or 3.2 grams of Beta Alanine daily experienced significant increases in muscle carnosine in as little as two weeks, with the higher dose achieving a higher concentration of Carnosine.
Nitramine contains 1.6g of Beta-Alanine which falls in the effective range, as demonstrated in the above mentioned studies.
L-Carnitine L-Tartrate is a form of Carnitine which is more rapidly absorbed following oral supplementation when compared to standard L-Carnitine. This makes it ideal for pre-workout supplementation, and while there is some evidence to suggest L-Carnitine L-Tartrate may enhance performance, the most well-established benefit lies in its ability to reduce exercise-induced muscle damage.
A 2002 study, published in the “American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism”, found that 2 grams L-Carnitine L-Tartrate effectively reduced various markers of exercise-induced muscle damage in resistance trained men. These findings were replicated with 1 gram (the dose present in Nitramine) in a later (2007) study published in “The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research”. A likely mechanism of action was identified in a 2008 study (from the same journal) in which it was found that L-Carnitine L-Tartrate supplementation significantly increased muscle oxygenation during exercise when oxygen would normally be lacking.
As previously mentioned, Nitramine contains 1g of L-Carnitine L-Tartrate per serving which is certainly an effective dose for aiding in muscle recovery from strenuous exercise.
Agmatine remains very under-researched, despite having a variety of health/performance implications. Recently, Agmatine has become quite pervasive in pre-workout supplements because of its alleged ability to regulate Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS), an enzyme that catalyzes the production of NO from Arginine, and either elevate or reduce its presence, depending on the type of NOS. NOS is a widely misunderstood enzyme, mostly due to supplement companies not properly explaining its function and how that function relates to physical performance. It is largely thought that NOS is the enzyme that “breaks down” NO, when it is actually the enzyme that catalyzes the production of NO from Arginine in the first place.
Nitric Oxide generally has a positive connotation in the bodybuilding/athletic community because it is associated with vasodilation, which clearly has performance/health benefits. However, this beneficial effect of NO only pertains to NO in the blood vessels. Elsewhere in the body (like the brain) NO can inflict damage and actually be quite harmful. So ideally, what we really are after is a way to reduce NO in the areas of the body where it can cause harm, while increasing it in blood vessels where it can beneficially influence physical performance.
It’s important to understand that there are several types of NOS, all which are required for the production of NO. Inducible NOS (iNOS) and Neuronal NOS (nNOS) are considered harmful because they elevate NO in immune cells (causing inflammation) and the brain (causing neuronal damage), while Endothelial NOS (eNOS) is considered beneficial as this is the kind which increases Nitric Oxide in the blood vessels, resulting in vasodilation. Agmatine has been demonstrated to up-regulate eNOS (the “good” NOS) while inhibiting the other NOS enzymes (the “bad” NOS). However, as mentioned above, Agmatine remains under-researched because it is a relatively new entrant in the supplement industry. Currently, most of the research has been done in vitro, with absolutely no studies regarding the potential physical performance benefits of Agmatine in humans.
While Agmatine is commonly touted to increase Nitric Oxide, there is preliminary evidence which indicates it can induce the secretion of Luteinizing Hormone (LH), which can in turn trigger Testosterone production. A 1995 study found that rats treated with Agmatine experienced increased LH secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Due to the lack of research on humans, no optimal dose has been identified with regards to performance enhancement, but the average range for pre-workouts tends to be 500-1000mg Agmatine per serving. Nitramine contains 500mg per serving.
Caffeine is a well-established ergogenic aid, oral consumption of which triggers the release of Catcholamines (Noradrenaline, Dopamine, Adrenaline, etc.), generally inducing a state of increased alertness, focus, and perceived energy. Many studies have concluded that pre-workout Caffeine consumption can enhance exercise capacity and muscle contractibility, in many cases quite significantly.
It should be kept in mind that habitual Caffeine consumption often results in tolerance, reducing the stimulant effects. We generally recommend that individuals seeking the full benefit of pre-workout Caffeine consumption try to limit their Caffeine intake at other times of the day. Nitramine contains 150mg of Caffeine which is enough to potentiate the effects of the other stimulants in the formula, but most likely won’t cause jitters or anxiety (common side-effects of large-dose caffeine consumption).
CITICOLINE SODIUM (CDP-CHOLINE)
Citicoline is a highly bioavailable source of Choline (second only to Alpha GPC) which has been shown to raise Acetylcholine levels in living models. Acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter commonly attributed with controlling the mind-muscle-connection, and although this may be somewhat of an over-simplification, increased levels of Acetylcholine generally lead to increased performance and muscle contractibility.
Since studies directly testing the effects of Citicoline on exercise performance are scarce, an optimal dose has yet to be established. Common doses for the purpose of raising Acetylcholine levels fall in the range of 250-1000mg.
Theobromine belongs to the same class of chemical compounds as Caffeine, known as Methylxanthines. While its CNS stimulant properties are less potent than Caffeine, it is alleged to increase heart rate to a greater degree, potentially enhancing oxygenation. Unlike Caffeine, Theobromine has not been extensively studies with regards to its effect on physical performance so an optimal dose has not been established.
Hordenine (chemical name N, N-dimethyltyramine) remains relatively under-researched, despite its escalating popularity in pre-workout and weight-loss supplements. Oral doses of Hordenine have been shown (in animals) to augment Noradrenaline-induced muscle contraction while not directly inducing contractions itself, indicating that it works as a monoamine reuptake inhibitor. So, rather than acting as a stand-alone stimulant, Hordenine can amplify/extend the effects of other stimulants by blocking the reuptake of Noradrenaline (and other Monoamines).
Tyramine is a derivative of the amino acid Tyrosine which is thought to act as a Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor (MAOI), meaning it blocks the enzyme (Monoamine Oxidase) responsible for the breakdown of certain neurotransmitter (Noradrenaline, Adrenaline, Dopamine, etc.). The result is an increase in levels of these neurotransmitters which can induce a state of increased alertness, focus, and perceived energy. Human research on Tyramine is somewhat scarce and the combined effect of the Tyramine and the other stimulants present in the formula has not been the subject of any published study. However, given its mechanism of action, it stands to reason that Tyramine can synergistically enhance the effects of the catecholamine-releasing agents in the Nitramine formula.
Higenamine, also known as Norcoclaurine acts as Beta(2)Adrenergic Agonist which, like other Beta Agonists, can increase heart-rate (although the optimal oral dose for achieving this effect is unknown). Higenamine has also been demonstrated in vitro to increase acetylcholine levels, though these findings have not yet been replicated in humans. Like many of the stimulants mentioned earlier, Higenamine remains under-researched, despite its implications as a performance enhancing stimulant and fat-loss agent. That being said, it certainly serves the purpose of rounding out the already thorough stimulant component of the Nitramine formula.
Huperzine A is an Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor which means it blocks the enzyme that breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, resulting in increased levels of acetylcholine. Acetylcholine controls skeletal muscle and is largely responsible for the ‘mind-muscle connection’. In addition to controlling the muscles, acetylcholine is also involved in learning, memory, decision making, and various other mental activities. Combined with the above mentioned Citicoline, Huperzine A can certainly elevate the aspects of performance controlled by Acetylcholine.
PIPER NIGRUM FRUIT EXTRACT (BIOPERINE®)
Piper nigrum, also known as Black Pepper, contains Piperine. Several studies have found that black pepper extract, when combined with other supplements, has increased the absorption of those supplements (as measured by plasma levels). Piperine’s ability to increase absorption of other compounds is due to the inhibition of certain enzymes which breakdown most compounds, as well as the slowing of intestinal transit (increasing the amount of time these compounds are exposed to the possibility of uptake).
RAUWOLFIA VOMITORIA ROOT EXTRACT (STD. MIN. 90% RAUWOLSCINE)
Rauwolscine (also known as alpha-yohimbine) is what is known as a ‘stereoisomer’ of Yohimbine, meaning it is chemically similar in structure. Because of this similarity, Rauwolscine produces similar effects, although perhaps to a milder degree. In the context of the Nitramine formula, Rauwolscine functions as an Alpha-Receptor Antagonist which may enhance the fat-burning induced by the other stimulants (Beta-Receptor Agonists) in the formula. For individuals who do not regularly consume Rauwolscine, it may also increase focus/intensity/perceived energy via release of noradrenaline.
THE BOTTOM LINE
Generally speaking, pre-workouts tend to either be physically effective or mentally effective, and very few are both. When supplement manufacturers try to go for both they often just end up with sub-par doses of key ingredients. Nitramine bridges the gap by including effective doses of physically effective ingredients such as Beta-Alanine, Betaine, and LCLT while also providing a very thorough stimulant blend to provide the mental edge many pre-workout users are seeking.
Still not sure which pre-workout is right for you? Check out our Top 10 Pre-Workout Supplements List!
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