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Dymatize M.P.S. Review

M.P.S. Dymatize

M.P.S. is the most recent amino-based formula from Dymatize consisting of BCAAs as well as two metabolites…

 

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M.P.S. (stands for Muscle Protein Synthesis) is the most recent amino-based formula from Dymatize consisting of BCAAs as well as two metabolites…[Skip to the Bottom Line]

LEUCINE:

Leucine is an amio acid belonging to the group known as Branched Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs), along with Isoleucine and Valine. The most common ratio found in BCAA supplements, the same ratio found in M.P.S., is 2:1:1 with the higher weight being Leucine. While there is no reliable scientific evidence to indicate one true “optimal ratio”, Leucine tends to be the most abundant because it is the most potent with regards to stimulation of muscle protein synthesis.

This was first demonstrated in a 1999 study from the “Journal of Nutrition”, but has been replicated several times since then. A 2009 study, published in Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism”, found that Leucine’s stimulation of muscle protein synthesis was augmented by physical exercise, indicating that pre/intra workout Leucine supplementation may have a greater impact than at other times. These results were consistent with those of an earlier (2001) study from the “American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism” in which essential amino acid (include Leucine) ingestion prior to exercise had a greater influence protein synthesis than post-exercise ingestion in healthy human subjects.

Leucine has also been shown, in multiple studies, to preserve muscle mass in individuals with certain diseases characterized by muscular wasting, further establishing Leucine as a potent anti-catabolic agent.

Leucine’s primary mechanism of action is via activation of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) which is a signaling molecule that signals the body to synthesize protein. To put it simply, Leucine activates mTOR which in turn stimulates protein synthesis. M.P.S contains 7 grams of BCAAs in a ratio of 2:1:1, meaning 3.5g of Leucine and 1.75g each of Isoleucine and Valine.

BCAAS IN GENERAL:

A major criticism of BCAA supplements is that Leucine alone can achieve a significant increase in muscle protein synthesis. While Leucine does appear to be the most critical in regards to muscle protein synthesis, a 2009 study published in the “Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition” concluded that BCAAs (2:1:1) have a more pronounced effect on protein synthesis than the same amount of Leucine alone. So, theoretically speaking, if you had to choose, you would choose Leucine, but all three is undeniably a better way to go.

A 2009 study published in the “Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition” tested the effects of BCAA supplementation in comparison to whey protein supplementation or simple carbohydrates (from a sports drink) in athletes. All subjects consumed the same diet and participated in the same physical training regimen. At the end of the 8 week study, the BCAA group significantly outperformed both the whey group and carbohydrate group in terms of lean body mass as well as strength. BCAAs are also a viable option for those on a calorie restricted diet that want to preserve, or increase, lean muscle mass.

HICA:

A-Hydroxyisocaproic Acid (HICA) is a product of Leucine metabolism which is touted to be an anti-catabolic agent. Currently, very little research exists on HICA in general, but the one human study is certainly encouraging.

A 2010 study, published in the “Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition”, found that HICA supplementation (1500mg daily) decreased soreness by about 23% and increased lean mass (no decrease in fat) in healthy subjects, compared to the placebo group.

Ultimately, HICA may compliment the effects of Leucine by creating a more pro-anabolic environment, but given that only one study has been conducted, a noticeable increase in lean mass cannot be guaranteed. M.P.S. contains 500mg of HICA per serving, meaning three servings per day would yield the same amount used in the above mentioned study.

L-KIC CALCIUM:

Ketoisocaproate (KIC) is a precursor to Leucine which, as evidenced in a 1975 rat study from “The Journal of Nutrition”, can serve as a substitute for Luecine in the absence of Leucine itself. Theoertically speaking, KIC may potentiate the anti-catabolic effects of Leucine, though it is not 100% as efficient at stimulating protein synthesis. Overall, we view KIC as the least important addition to the M.P.S. formula, but it may very well convey some benefit.

THE BOTTOM LINE:

M.P.S. is essentially a BCAA supplement with the addition of two anti-catabolic metabolites, HICA and KIC. The inclusion of these two Leucine-like compounds may offer some addition efficacy over standard BCAA products, but at about $1.25 per serving, Dymatize is certainly charging a premium for them. Those looking for an effective BCAA-based blend may want to give M.P.S. a shot, but roughly the same benefit could likely be achieved with other (cheaper) BCAA-based supplements.

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REFERENCES
  1. Mero, Antti A., et al. “Effects of alfa-hydroxy-isocaproic acid on body composition, DOMS and performance in athletes.” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 7.1 (2010)
  2. Anthony, Tracy G., et al. “Oral administration of leucine stimulates ribosomal protein mRNA translation but not global rates of protein synthesis in the liver of rats.” The Journal of nutrition 131.4 (2001): 1171-1176.
  3. Tipton, Kevin D., et al. “Stimulation of muscle anabolism by resistance exercise and ingestion of leucine plus protein.” Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism 34.2 (2009): 151-161.
  4. Tipton, Kevin D., et al. “Stimulation of net muscle protein synthesis by whey protein ingestion before and after exercise.” American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism 292.1 (2007): E71-E76
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  7. Chawla, Rajender K., W. James Stackhouse, and Allan D. Wadsworth. “Efficiency of alpha-ketoisocaproic acid as a substitute for leucine in the diet of the growing rat.” The Journal of nutrition 105.6 (1975): 798.
  8. Yarrow, Joshua F., Jeffrey J. Parr, Lesley J. White, Paul A. Borsa, and Bruce R. Stevens. “The Effects of Short-term Alpha-ketoisocaproic Acid Supplementation on Exercise Performance: A Randomized Controlled Trial.” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 4.1 (2007): 2.
  9. Shimomura, Yoshiharu, et al. “Nutraceutical effects of branched-chain amino acids on skeletal muscle.” The Journal of nutrition 136.2 (2006): 529S-532S.
  10. Shimomura, Yoshiharu, et al. “Exercise promotes BCAA catabolism: effects of BCAA supplementation on skeletal muscle during exercise.” The Journal of nutrition 134.6 (2004): 1583S-1587S.
  11. MacLean D.A..Graham,T.E. and B. Saltin. “Branched-chain amino acids augment ammonia metabolism while attenuating protein breakdown during exercise.” American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology And Metabolism 267.6 (1994): E1010-E1022.
  12. Blomstrand, E., P. Hassm�n, B. Ekblom, and E. A. Newsholme. “Administration of Branched-chain Amino Acids during Sustained Exercise ? Effects on Performance and on Plasma Concentration of Some Amino Acids.” European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology 63.2 (1991): 83-88.
  13. Blomstrand, Eva. “A Role for Branched-Chain Amino Acids in Reducing Central Fatigue.”American Society for Nutrition
  14. Doi, Masako, et al. “Isoleucine, a blood glucose-lowering amino acid, increases glucose uptake in rat skeletal muscle in the absence of increases in AMP-activated protein kinase activity.” The Journal of nutrition 135.9 (2005): 2103-2108.
  15. Doi, Masako, et al. “Isoleucine, a potent plasma glucose-lowering amino acid, stimulates glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes.” Biochemical and biophysical research communications 312.4 (2003): 1111-1117.
  16. Casperson, Shanon L., et al. “Leucine supplementation chronically improves muscle protein synthesis in older adults consuming the RDA for protein.”Clinical Nutrition 31.4 (2012): 512-519.
  17. Shimomura, Yoshiharu, et al. “Nutraceutical effects of branched-chain amino acids on skeletal muscle.” The Journal of nutrition 136.2 (2006): 529S-532S.
  18. Stoppani, Jim, et al. “Consuming branched-chain amino acid supplement during a resistance training program increases lean mass, muscle strength and fat loss.” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 6.Suppl 1 (2009): P1.
  19. Gomez-Merino, D., et al. Evidence that the branched-chain amino acid L-valine prevents exercise-induced release of 5-HT in rat hippocampus. Int J Sports Med. 2001 Jul;22(5):317-22.

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